How to: Set up a Wi-Fi Hotzone Using Meraki (Part I)
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Many of the larger municipalities have installed or are planning to install Wi-Fi networks for creating city-wide wireless coverage. In some cases, such as Philadelphia, the coverage area is over a hundred square miles. These deployments have had ups and downs in terms of signal coverage and performance, and they are very costly. As an alternative to covering large expansive areas, some municipalities and private entities, such as home and apartment owners, are building smaller-scale Wi-Fi networks (hot zones) offering wireless Internet connectivity to smaller groups of people. This appears to be a more feasible approach. [Read about Boston's recent decision to opt for hotzone versus ubiquitous coverage.]
For example, a municipality may install a Wi-Fi network to cover a one or two mile stretch of the towns main street, where its likely that businesses and the public can strongly benefit from free Internet connectivity or mobile access to the Internet. Furthermore, an apartment owner may provide coverage to tenants, or a homeowner or entrepreneur may offer Internet connectivity to a specific neighborhood. The City of Prestonsburg, KY, has done this, resulting in tremendous benefits, as explained in a Meraki case study.
In many cases, the benefits of enabling Web browsing, e-mail and possibly voice telephony are enough to warrant the installation of a Wi-Fi hotzone. With these basic requirements, the relatively low-cost ($49 per node) Wi-Fi mesh system from Meraki is an effective solution. If widespread public safety applications require support, then you may need a much more expensive solution from other vendors, such as BelAir, Cisco, Strix, or Tropos.
Meraki system basics
Meraki offers a complete mesh network solution, which includes mesh nodes, gateways, antennas, management tools, and billing services. Meraki sells mesh nodes that install either inside a home or business (Meraki Mini) or outside (Meraki Outdoor). Both of these units act as Wi-Fi access points / repeaters that interconnect wirelessly with other nodes within range to form a mesh network. One or more of the mesh nodes operate as gateways and connect to the Internet. [Read our reviews.]
Indoor nodes are very simple to install. Simply attach the unit to a window facing the street (sticky tape included), and plug the units electrical cord into a nearby outlet. This is similar to indoor CPE used with traditional mesh networks, except that in the case of the Meraki system, the indoor device provides repeating and routing functions as well (thus no requirement for an outdoor node). After configuring the system through an online management console (Meraki Dashboard), the node receives its configuration automatically through the network, assuming at least one of the nodes is connected to the Internet. The Meraki Outdoor unit operates similarly, but it has weatherproofing and can be mounted on various mounting assets, such as light poles and traffic lights. For more details on Merakis solution, refer to the Meraki Web site.
Once the Meraki network is setup, a user may connect to any of the mesh nodes via Wi-Fi similar to a traditional infrastructure wireless LAN, or a user can attach to any mesh node via an Ethernet cable (unless the particular mesh node is a gateway, which has a modem cable occupying the Ethernet port). This saves many users from potentially needing to purchase a Wi-Fi card.
An advantage of the Meraki solution is that it can grow organically without much planning. Its advisable, however, to do some homework ahead of time to ensure a stable and effective system. The following are important items to consider:
- Free vs. fee-based access: Determine whether network access will be free or fee-based. Meraki lets you easily configure either approach. Free service is good when marketing a particular location or area. A municipality, for example, can likely draw businesses and patrons when free Internet connectivity is available throughout the main street of a town.
If installing a Meraki system in a neighborhood or apartment building for the purpose of sharing Internet services, then you should consider charging users for access. After totaling up the costs for Internet connectivity (DSL or cable service) and equipment (Meraki mesh nodes), factor in the number of potential users, and determine an equitable, or even profitable, fee to charge. More than likely, the cost for the Meraki system, including hardware and Internet connections, will be less than having each user pay for a dedicated Internet connection. This of course is the primary benefit of deploying the system. With fee-based service, you essentially become a wireless ISP (WISP), but Meraki handles the processing and management of subscriptions and payments. This makes life much easier than setting up a payment processing system yourself.
- Node locations: Identify preliminary locations for mesh nodes (and gateways). With the Meraki mesh nodes, you can expect roughly 500 to 600 feet of range between nodes installed along a street if line-of-site conditions exist between the nodes. My consulting company, Wireless-Nets, tested Meraki installations in both neighborhood and main street environments and found that this is a very good rule of thumb. For instance, nodes having direct line-of-sight that were 500 feet apart, with nodes installed inside windows of both facilities, an Internet speed tester indicated average 1,450 Kbps downlink speeds, which was only approximately 200 Kbps slower than connecting directly to the Internet without the mesh network. You should plan on less range, such as 300 feet or so, however, in order to have some margin for nodes that may become inoperative (e.g., if someone inadvertently unplugs one). Also, trees and other obstacles between the nodes may reduce range. You can pull up a satellite map of your area using Google Earth in order to easily measure distances and determine where it makes most sense to install the nodes. Ideally, you shouldnt plan on installing all nodes on the same side of the street. Instead, alternate the placement on different sides of the street. That greatly increases signal propagation.
- Internet connections (backhaul). Plan on having at least one connection to the Internet. This could be as simple as using the personal Internet service that you currently have for a home or business within the coverage area. Keep in mind that shared utilization of this Internet connection may impact performance. Do some calculations to determine the impact and how many more Internet connections you might need. Youll need to estimate the maximum number of simultaneous users and figure out the minimum throughput you want each simultaneous user to have. For example, a single Internet connection offering 1,500 Kbps would support three users at 500 Kbps each. This means that youll need two Internet connections if potentially supporting six users. Keep in mind that these are simultaneous users, which means that theyll be downloading or uploading data at the same time. In reality, much of the time users are merely connected to the network and not sending anything. As a result, the system will accommodate many more users than the total that are connected to the network. With the Meraki system, you can also reduce the impact that each active user incurs on the network by reducing the maximum speed for the users to lower values, such as 100 Kbps or so, which may be okay if the service is free. Because its difficult to predict usage of the network, you might need to experiment a bit with getting the number of Internet connections right.
- Legal issues. This is very important. Be certain that your ISP doesnt object to you sharing the Internet connection with others. Some ISPs have very clear language in their service agreements that legally disallow sharing. If you ignore these restrictions, your ISP may notice a higher than usual traffic on your Internet connection, prompting them to investigate, terminate your service, and possibly press legal action against you. If your ISP prohibits sharing, then you may be able to upgrade to a commercial connection and avoid legal issues (always a good idea).
- Meraki Editions: Determine which Meraki Edition you plan to use use: Carrier, Pro, or Standard. Rather than explain the details of these here, you can view an Edition comparison on the Meraki website. If at all possible, try to get by with the Standard Edition, which results in much lower costing hardware.
- Installation coordination. If youre installing indoor nodes, then contact the businesses and residents owning the facilities where youd like to install nodes. Youll probably have very good participation if offering free Internet access. Most owners will jump at the chance of having a node installed inside their facility because theyll surely end up having a strong signal in addition to getting free service. The installation of outdoor nodes generally requires more coordination and expenses. When using light poles, for example, youll need to coordinate with the city or applicable company owning the poles. This has been very difficult and sometimes cost-prohibitive in many cases. These entities might want to charge a monthly fee for each node location, and poles may need to be converted from banked-switched power to individual light sensors to enable powering the nodes at night. Plus, youll need to utilize the more expensive outdoor nodes. In some cases, the municipality may need to install new poles, which gets very expensive and time consuming. If at all possible, maximize the installation of nodes indoors to avoid these problems.
- Operational support: As with any information system, you must plan on wholl support the system and how itll be done. Meraki simplifies the chores of operational support by offering online statistics, error reports, centralized firmware updates, and alerts, but youll still need to figure out the people wholl be responsible for making sure the network continues to operate smoothly. A municipality can take care of this by incorporating the support into existing help desk activities. With neighborhood networks, you must generally find volunteers (probably yourself) who can spend time periodically monitoring network status, such as downed or unreachable nodes, and fixing problems.
- Financing: If youre going to offer free access, then figure out wholl pay for the hardware and Internet connections. If Wi-Fi service is being offered along a towns main street, the city may be willing to pay the bills, such as the case with the City of Prestonsburg, KY. If the city is not interested in financing the project, then check with non-profit organizations, such as area improvement councils and neighborhood associations. You should also consider setting up a sponsor program where businesses paying for equipment or services receive visibility on the networks splash screen for marketing purposes. Youll be surprised--one or two businesses in the local area may donate money for the entire network, just so they can put their name on it.
In the next installment, well get down to the nuts and bolts of actually implementing the network in the next installment of this tutorial.
Author Biography: Jim Geier provides independent consulting services and training to companies developing and deploying wireless networks for enterprises and municipalities. He is the author of a dozen books on wireless topics, with recent releases including Deploying Voice over Wireless LANs (Cisco Press) and Implementing 802.1x Security Solutions (Wiley).