As an optional feature, the 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request to
Send/Clear to Send) function to control station access to the medium. Generally
only the more costly, high-end wireless LANs offer RTS/CTS in radio network
interface cards (NICs) and access points — you won’t find this on inexpensive
home or SOHO products. Through the proper use of RTS/CTS, you can fine-tune
the operation of your wireless LAN depending on the operating environment.
RTS/CTS in action
If you enable RTS/CTS on a particular station, it will refrain from sending
a data frame until the station completes a RTS/CTS handshake with another station,
such as an access point. A station initiates the process by sending a RTS frame.
The access point receives the RTS and responds with a CTS frame. The station
must receive a CTS frame before sending the data frame. The CTS also contains
a time value that alerts other stations to hold off from accessing the medium
while the station initiating the RTS transmits its data.
The RTS/CTS handshaking provides positive control over the use of the shared
medium. The primary reason for implementing RTS/CTS is to minimize collisions
among hidden stations. This occurs when users and access points are spread out
throughout the facility and you’re finding a relatively high number of retransmissions
occurring on the wireless LAN.
Imagine there are two 802.11 end users (Station A and Station B) and one access
point. Station A and Station B can’t hear each other because of high attenuation
(e.g., substantial range), but they can both communicate with the same access
point. Because of this situation, Station A may begin sending a frame without
noticing that Station B is currently transmitting (or vice versa). This will
very likely cause a collision between Station A and Station B to occur at the
access point. As a result, both Station A and Station B would need to retransmit
their respective packets, which results in higher overhead and lower throughput.
If either Station A or Station B activates RTS/CTS, however, the collision
will not happen. Before transmitting, Station B would send a RTS and receive
a CTS from the access point. The timing value in the CTS (which Station A also
receives) will cause Station A to hold off long enough for Station B to transmit
the frame. Thus, the use of RTS/CTS reduces collisions and increases the performance
of the network if hidden stations are present.
Keep in mind, though, that an increase in performance using RTS/CTS is the
net result of introducing overhead (i.e., RTS/CTS frames) and reducing overhead
(i.e., fewer retransmissions). If you don’t have any hidden nodes, then the
use of RTS/CTS will only increase the amount of overhead, which reduces throughput.
A slight hidden node problem may also result in performance degradation if you
implement RTS/CTS. In this case, the additional RTS/CTS frames cost more in
terms of overhead than what you gain by reducing retransmissions. Thus, be careful
when implementing RTS/CTS.
RTS/CTS implementation tips
One of the best ways to determine if you should activate RTS/CTS is to monitor
the wireless LAN for collisions. If you find a large number of collisions and
the users are relatively far apart and likely out of range, then try enabling
RTS/CTS on the applicable user wireless NICs. You can activate the function
by clicking "enable RTS/CTS" somewhere in the user setup screens.
You don’t need to enable RTS/CTS at the access point in this case. After receiving
a RTS frame from a user’s radio NIC, the access point will always respond with
a CTS frame.
Of course, keep in mind that user mobility can change the results. A highly
mobile user may be hidden for a short period of time, perhaps when you perform
the testing, then be closer to other stations most of the time. If collisions
are occurring between users within range of each other, the problem may be the
result of high network utilization or possibly RF
After activating RTS/CTS, test to determine if the number of collisions is
less and the resulting throughput is better. Because RTS/CTS introduces overhead,
you should shut it off if you find a drop in throughput, even if you have fewer
collisions. After all, the goal is to improve performance.
The method for enabling RTS/CTS on access points is different than with NICs.
For access points, you enable RTS/CTS by setting a specific packet size threshold
(0 — 2347 bytes) in the user configuration interface. If the packet that the
access point is transmitting is larger than the threshold, it will initiate
the RTS/CTS function. If the packet size is equal to or less than the threshold,
the access point will not kick off RTS/CTS. Most vendors recommend using a threshold
of around 500. The use of 2347 bytes effectively disables RTS/CTS for the access
In most cases, initiating RTS/CTS in the access point is fruitless because
the hidden station problem doesn’t exist from the perspective of the access
point. All stations having valid associations are within range and not hidden
from the access point. Forcing the access point to implement the RTS/CTS handshake
will significantly increase the overhead and reduce throughput. Focus on using
RTS/CTS in the NICs to improve performance.
Jim Geier provides independent consulting services to companies
developing and deploying wireless network solutions. He is the author of the
book, Wireless LANs
(SAMs, 2001), and regularly instructs workshops on wireless LANs.
Join Jim for discussions as he answers questions in the 802.11 Planet Forums.