Interference from Cordless Phones

More and more households and businesses today are using cordless phones, made
by a variety of companies, including Panasonic, Siemens, and Sony.
The cordless phones supposedly sound clearer and have much better range than
wired phones. Of course they also provide mobility.

Cordless phones operate on 3 different frequencies, 900MHz, 2.4GHz, and 5GHz.
Do those last two frequencies sound familiar? Yep, at least the 2.4GHz and 5GHz
frequencies fall in the same frequency bands as 802.11b and
wireless LANs, respectively — and the use of the phones can cause significant
RF interference
to your WLAN.

Potential 802.11b Interference

The majority of cordless phones in use today are 2.4GHz models. These phones,
innocent as they may seem, reap devastating effects on 802.11b WLANs. Finding
cases where 2.4GHz phones severely interfere with 802.11b WLANs is usually an
easy task. Some 802.11b WLANs have even been totally shut down by somebody simply
answering a 2.4GHz cordless phone. Why? The answer lies in the technology.

Most 2.4GHz phones use frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technology
that operates within the 2.4GHz spectrum. FHSS hops from frequency-to-frequency
across the entire 2.4GHz spectrum. 802.11b WLANs, on the other hand, use direct
sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), which transmits within approximately one third
of the 2.4 GHz spectrum. Because FHSS jumps across the entire spectrum while
DSSS stays in only one portion, a FHSS 2.4GHz will clobber an 802.11b network,
causing interference or even failure.

Potential 802.11a Interference

The jury is still out on whether 5GHz cordless phones have any detrimental
effects on 802.11a WLANs. If interference issues do arise, however, they will
most likely be easier to correct than with 802.11b. 802.11a uses more non-conflicting
channels within the 5GHz spectrum as compared to 802.11b in the 2.4GHz spectrum.
802.11a enjoys the luxury of 12 independent, non-overlapping channels. 802.11b
has 11 channels in the U.S., but only three don’t overlap (channels 1, 6, and

Resolutions to Consider

What can you do to eliminate the effects a cordless phone has on your WLAN?
There are a number of solutions, some of which are guaranteed to work and others
that may significantly lower the interference level. The fail-safe solutions
all consist of replacing equipment.

If your interference is coming from a 2.4GHz phone, the sure fire solution
is to change to a 900MHz or 5GHz phone or switch the WLAN to 802.11a. Both methods
will eliminate the interference. These solutions are the most effective, but
also the most expensive.

Before spending lots of money on new hardware, consider the following less
expensive (but possibly less effective) approaches:

  • With 802.11b systems, try changing the channel on the access point (at least
    try 1, 6, and 11). Anecdotally, people have found that they have the least
    interference on channel 11.
  • With 802.11a systems, change to any one of the channels that are not in
    use by the cordless phone.
  • Change the location of the access point or the cordless phone base. Maximize
    the distance between the cordless phones and WLAN devices, especially WLAN
    users operating at the fringes of access point range.
  • If you have the option, use an external, remote antenna on
    your computer. This will let you place the antenna as far away as possible
    from a cordless phone.
  • Operate the cordless phone with the antenna in the lowered position if possible.
    This will dampen the RF signal coming from the cordless phone and reduce the
    amount of interference.

There are no guarantees that these actions will work, but they may cut the
interference enough to allow acceptable performance. The most attractive aspect
of these solutions, however, is the fact that they are free.

Jim Geier provides independent consulting services to companies
developing and deploying wireless network solutions. He is the author of the
book, Wireless LANs and
offers workshops
on deploying WLANs.

Join Jim for discussions as he answers questions in the 802.11 Planet Forums.

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